I found this ‘Ladder’ of Participation from the Learner Voice Futurelab report useful to think about different dimensions of learner participation and student engagement. Please go to the Futurelab report to see the original table and get the full background on the research the table is built on.
I have added the original table into a powerpoint slide as this was easier to upload.
“The table above draws on Arnstein’s ladder of participation and Hart’s work on children’s participation. It shows that involvement can occur on a number of levels, ranging from those described as ‘non participation’ to the fully participatory and active (learner empowerment). In terms of embedding learner voice, the aim is to ensure there is a culture and appropriate ways of working to enable more approaches like those at the bottom of the table (learner empowerment)” (Futurelab report 2006:11).
Arnstein, S (1969). A ladder of citizen participation in the USA. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 35, 4 pp 216-24.
Hart, R (1992). Children’s Participation: From Tokenism to Citizenship. UNICEF